Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Oregon Statehood

U.S. 4¢ Oregon Statehood stamp on this cover issued on 14.2.1959 and released first at Astoria, Oregon, commemorates the 100th anniversary of Oregon statehood.

In 1792, Captain Robert Gray, an American, was the first European to explore the Columbia River. Gray named the river after his ship. The Lewis and Clark Expedition traveled by land to the mouth of the Columbia River in 1805. These explorations gave the United States solid grounds for claiming the Oregon region.

In the early 1800s, the Oregon region was defined as stretching from Alaska, which was controlled by Russia, to California, which was ruled by Spain. Oregon’s eastern boundary extended all the way to the Rocky Mountains. Russia, Spain, Great Britain, and the United States all made claims on this area.

“Fifty-Four Forty or Fight”. In 1819, Spain signed a treaty giving up its claim to territory north of latitude 42º, which is modern Oregon’s southern boundary. Russia signed treaties with Great Britain and the U.S., relinquishing its claims south of 54º 40’. However, the U.S. and Britain could not agree on a boundary, and signed an agreement by which citizens of both nations could settle in Oregon.

American fur trader John Jacob Astor began white settlement of Oregon when he established a fur trading company at Astoria. After the War of 1812, Great Britain took control of Astoria. In 1825, the British Hudson Bay Company established Fort Vancouver at the site of today’s Vancouver, Washington. John McLoughlin served as head of the firm for 20 years – which basically meant he ruled the region. McLoughlin later became a U.S. citizen. He played a key role in the settlement of the state and is today remembered as the “father of Oregon.”

The first permanent American settlement in Oregon was created in 1834 by Methodist missionaries at Williamette Valley. After this settlement was established, hundreds of Americans began pouring into the area every year. This put pressure on the U.S. and Britain to settle their boundary dispute. In 1844, James K. Polk ran for the U.S. presidency, based on a campaign stating that land south of 54º 40’ belonged to the U.S. The slogan “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight” became a big part of his campaign. Polk was elected President, and in 1846, he signed a treaty with Great Britain fixing the 49th parallel as the main dividing line between the territories of the two nations.

Indian Wars in Oregon. During the second half of the 19th century, there were a series of bitter wars fought between American Indian tribes and whites. In 1847, Indians massacred Marcus Whitman and 13 others near today’s Walla Walla, Washington. This sparked the Cayuse War (1847-48). Gold was discovered in southwest Oregon in the early 1850s, and white miners flocked to the area. A series of conflicts between miners and Indians led to the Rogue River Indian War, which ended in 1856. The Indians were forced into a reservation. The Modoc Indian War lasted from November 1872 to June 1873. A small group of Modoc Indians used lava beds, which had formed a natural fortress, to hold more than 1,000 U.S. soldiers back before surrendering. In 1877, the Nez Perce resisted being moved to a reservation. One Nez Perce group was led by the famous Chief Joseph, who attempted to flee from U.S. soldiers through Idaho and Montana. Chief Joseph was forced to surrender near the Canadian border. In 1878, the Paiute and Bannock Indians began attacking settlers, but they were quickly defeated.

The Oregon Territory. Oregon settlers organized a provisional government in 1843. They adopted a set of laws patterned after those of Iowa. In 1848, Oregon became a territory. Oregon City served as the capital until 1850, when it was moved to Salem. In 1853, the Washington Territory was created, and Oregon received the same boundaries it has today.

The territory grew fast after the attractive Donation Land Law of 1850 was passed. This law gave 320 acres of land to any U.S. citizen over 18. A settler’s wife could also receive 320 acres. The settler had to cultivate the land for a minimum of four years to qualify for ownership. Starting December 1850, and until December 1855, settlers received 160 acres of land and had to be over 21 years old.

The 33rd State to Join the Union. Oregon achieved statehood on February 14, 1859. Salem served as the capital city and John Whiteaker became the first governor. During the Civil War, Indian attacks intensified in the American West, as the Union Army was busy fighting the Confederacy. State volunteers protected Oregon from such attacks, which lasted for more than 15 years after the conclusion of the war. When the war ended, many soldiers moved west, looking for new opportunities. This movement was fostered by the completion of the transcontinental railroads in the 1880s. Oregon grew rapidly. In 1860, its population was about 52,000. By 1890, its population reached 300,000.

Thank you Merja for this nice FDC.

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